# GreekAlphabet

In the early eighth century BC, Greek alphabets and symbols have used to write the Greek language.

## Greek Alphabet Capital and Small Letters

## Table of Greek alphabet letters symbols with capital and small letters.

Symbol Name | Capital Letter | Small Letter |
---|---|---|

Alpha | Α | α |

Beta | Β | β |

Gamma | Γ | γ |

Delta | Δ | δ |

Epsilon | Ε | ε |

Zeta | Ζ | ζ |

Eta | Η | η |

Theta | Θ | θ |

Iota | Ι | ι |

Kappa | Κ | κ |

Lambda | Λ | λ |

Mu | Μ | μ |

Nu | Ν | ν |

Xi | Ξ | ξ |

Omicron | Ο | ο |

Pi | Π | π |

Rho | Ρ | ρ |

Sigma | Σ | σ |

Tau | Τ | τ |

Upsilon | Υ | υ |

Phi | Φ | φ |

Chi | Χ | χ |

Psi | Ψ | ψ |

Omega | Ω | ω |

## Greek Alphabets Entity Table

Table of Greek alphabet letters symbols unicode and html entity codes.

Symbol Name | Symbol | Decimal | Hex Entity | Html Entity |
---|---|---|---|---|

Capital Letter Alpha | Α | Α | Α | Α |

Small Letter Alpha | α | α | α | α |

Capital Letter Beta | Β | Β | Β | Β |

Small Letter Beta | β | β | β | β |

Capital Letter Gamma | Γ | Γ | Γ | Γ |

Small Letter Gamma | γ | γ | γ | γ |

Capital Letter Delta | Δ | Δ | Δ | Δ |

Small Letter Delta | δ | δ | δ | δ |

Capital Letter Epsilon | Ε | Ε | Ε | Ε |

Small Letter Epsilon | ε | ε | ε | ε |

Capital Letter Zeta | Ζ | Ζ | Ζ | Ζ |

Small Letter Zeta | ζ | ζ | ζ | ζ |

Capital Letter Eta | Η | Η | Η | Η |

Small Letter Eta | η | η | η | η |

Capital Letter Theta | Θ | Θ | Θ | Θ |

Small Letter Theta | θ | θ | θ | θ |

Capital Letter Iota | Ι | Ι | Ι | Ι |

Small Letter Iota | ι | ι | ι | ι |

Capital Letter Kappa | Κ | Κ | Κ | Κ |

Small Letter Kappa | κ | κ | κ | κ |

Capital Letter Lambda | Λ | Λ | Λ | Λ |

Small Letter Lambda | λ | λ | λ | λ |

Capital Letter Mu | Μ | Μ | Μ | Μ |

Small Letter Mu | μ | μ | μ | μ |

Capital Letter Nu | Ν | Ν | Ν | Ν |

Small Letter Nu | ν | ν | ν | ν |

Capital Letter Xi | Ξ | Ξ | Ξ | Ξ |

Small Letter Xi | ξ | ξ | ξ | ξ |

Capital Letter Omicron | Ο | Ο | Ο | Ο |

Small Letter Omicron | ο | ο | ο | ο |

Capital Letter Pi | Π | Π | Π | Π |

Small Letter Pi | π | π | π | π |

Capital Letter Rho | Ρ | Ρ | Ρ | Ρ |

Small Letter Rho | ρ | ρ | ρ | ρ |

Capital Letter Sigma | Σ | Σ | Σ | Σ |

Small Letter Sigma | σ | σ | σ | σ |

Capital Letter Tau | Τ | Τ | Τ | Τ |

Small Letter Tau | τ | τ | τ | τ |

Capital Letter Upsilon | Υ | Υ | Υ | Υ |

Small Letter Upsilon | υ | υ | υ | υ |

Capital Letter Phi | Φ | Φ | Φ | Φ |

Small Letter Phi | φ | φ | φ | φ |

Capital Letter Chi | Χ | Χ | Χ | Χ |

Small Letter Chi | χ | χ | χ | χ |

Capital Letter Psi | Ψ | Ψ | Ψ | Ψ |

Small Letter Psi | ψ | ψ | ψ | ψ |

Capital Letter Omega | Ω | Ω | Ω | Ω |

Small Letter Omega | ω | ω | ω | ω |

## Greek Alphabet LaTeX Codes

Table of Greek alphabet letters symbols in LaTeX commands.

Symbol Name | Capital Letter | Small Letter | Command |
---|---|---|---|

Alpha | Α | α | \Alpha \alpha |

Beta | Β | β | \Beta \beta |

Gamma | Γ | γ | \Gamma \gamma |

Delta | Δ | δ | \Delta \delta |

Epsilon | Ε | ε | \Epsilon \epsilon |

Zeta | Ζ | ζ | \Zeta \zeta |

Eta | Η | η | \Eta \eta |

Theta | Θ | θ | \Theta \theta |

Iota | Ι | ι | \Iota \iota |

Kappa | Κ | κ | \Kappa \kappa |

Lambda | Λ | λ | \Lambda \lambda |

Mu | Μ | μ | \Mu \mu |

Nu | Ν | ν | \Nu \nu |

Xi | Ξ | ξ | \Xi \xi |

Omicron | Ο | ο | \Omicron \omicron |

Pi | Π | π | \Pi \pi |

Rho | Ρ | ρ | \Rho \rho |

Sigma | Σ | σ | \Sigma \sigma |

Tau | Τ | τ | \Tau \tau |

Upsilon | Υ | υ | \Upsilon \upsilon |

Phi | Φ | φ | \Phi \phi |

Chi | Χ | χ | \Chi \chi |

Psi | Ψ | ψ | \Psi \psi |

Omega | Ω | ω | \Omega \omega |

## What is Greek Alphabet and Greek Symbols?

Since the early eighth century BC, these alphabets have been using in the Greek language.

Earlier, the Greek alphabet had a single type of letter, but later, uppercase and lowercase were distinguished during the modern era.

One may observe quite a difference in sound values and conventional transcripts from Ancient Times to the modern era, as the pronunciations of

Greek alphabets have changed notably from the fifth century to today.

Greek alphabets and the Greek language have a significant role in mathematics, science, and other fields like ancient Greek culture.

These symbols have played a vital role in modern languages.

### About Greek Alphabets and Symbols

In the ancient era, there were many local variants of the Greek alphabet or symbols. Also, the symbols had a single type of letters, but later in the fifth century BC, twenty-four letters starting from alpha to omega were announced as standard Greek symbols.

And Now, In the modern era, most people distinguished single types of letters between uppercase and lowercase.

From the list of twenty-four alphabets, there are six vowels and eighteen consonants. The vowels are **α, ε, η, ι, ο, ω, υ**. Alpha being the first letter and omega is the last.

Greek symbols are not only a part of the Greek language, but these symbols in modern times have also been used in mathematics, physics, engineering, chemistry, and many more.

The below tables provide an overview of all the alphabets and their symbols. It is observed that many of the English language letters have their origin from these greek alphabets. Even the word ‘alphabet’ is derived from the very first two letters, alpha and beta.

The mathematical value 3.142 is defined using the Greek symbol ‘pi’ also mu, the micro character (µ).

Although few of the symbols and letters that have originated from Greek play a vital in this era, many others were needless because of their identical sound with some other notes.

### History of Greek Alphabets

Starting from the sixteenth century BC to the twelfth century BC or the Mycenaean period, Linear B was used to write the authentic form of the Greek language, named Mycenaean Greek.

The modern world last used this language in the thirteenth century BC. Near the end of the ninth century or early eighth century BC, the origination of Greek symbols took place.

There was no authentic text between the two writing systems, thus known as the **Greek Dark ages**.

It is believed that the Greeks have acquired the alphabets from the Phoenician alphabet calling it the ‘Phoenician letters’.

These letters only had consonants, but when the Greeks adopted these letters to write the Greek language, some of the consonants were used to express vowels.

The use of both vowels and consonants makes it different from Phoenician letters, which only had consonants in their list.

Initially, there were twenty-two letters taken from Phoenicians by the Greeks, out of which five have adapted as vowels.

Greeks also introduced a new vowel letter for the long ‘**omega**’, glide consonants yodh and waw are used for ‘iota’ and ‘upsilon’ respectively, the glottal stop consonant aleph was used for alpha, the pharyngeal `**ayin**’ have used to denote omicron.

Three new consonants were also introduced because of their pulmonic‘ **phi**,’ ‘**chi**,’ and ‘**psi**.’

Originally the Greek language was written from right to left, similar to the Phoenician, but this also had local variants.

We expected right to left and left to suitable writing styles. This type of writing was called ‘**boustrophedon**’ or ‘**ox-turning**.’ Later in the classical period, the left to right writing style was announced as the official writing direction.

Letters of Greek symbols have been used in many sciences to describe the social level of an individual group, whereas in the case of physics, to define quantities, constant variables, and other phenomena.

Also, in mathematics, the value 3.142 is shown using ‘**pi**.’

### Use of Greek Alphabets

Greek alphabets have been widely used for mathematical, scientific, and engineering measures. Everything starting from permanence, ratios of circles to resistivity, and many other terms are denoted using greek symbols or alphabets.

There are only 24 alphabets in the Greek language. These alphabets do not have capital and small letters in them but are widely used for vivid different measures.

Each letter has a different meaning or is used to denote various measures.

The Greek language is one of the most common languages among engineers, as they have to use it daily.

Along with engineers, mathematicians and scientists also use these alphabets in numerous fields.

#### Alpha (α)

Alpha is the first letter of the Greek language. It is frequently used to display alpha particles in physics, whereas it represents angles, temperature coefficient of resistance, thermal expansion, and thermal diffusivity in science and engineering.

#### Beta (β)

In physics, Beta represents high energy and high-speed electrons denoted with beta particles or beta rays. It has also been used to indicate angles, coefficients attenuation, constant absorption factor, and area.

#### Gamma (γ)

Gamma letters are very commonly used to represent Gamma radiation. This representation is ubiquitous among the lowercase letters, whereas the uppercase letters describe the boundary limits. It has also been used for Complex propagation constant (cap), specific gravity, angles, electrical conductivity, propagation constant.

#### Delta (Δ)

It has been used to denote the difference between types of measurement. It is also used to represent the angle, Increment or decrement, determinant (cap), permittivity (cap), density.

#### Epsilon (ε)

Epsilon denotes the Dielectric constant, electric field intensity, permittivity, electron energy, and the constant of 2.7128 also for the base of natural algorithms.

#### Zeta (ζ)

Zeta represents the coefficients and coordinates in the field of mathematics and physics. This letter also denotes the damping ratio of an oscillating system.

#### Eta (η)

This letter has been used for the intrinsic impedance of a medium, hysteresis, surface charge density, hysteresis, and dielectric susceptibility.

#### Theta (θ)

This letter is ubiquitous among mathematicians working in trigonometry. They are used to represent the rotation angle, phase displacement, thermal resistance, and transit angle.

#### Iota (Ι)

Iota denotes the unit vector.

#### Kappa (κ)

The Lowercase of Kappa is the representation of Einstein's constant of gravitation. It has also been used to represent thermal conductivity, coupling coefficient, and susceptibility.

#### Lambda (λ)

Lambda is again a ubiquitous letter both in science and engineering. It is used as a symbol of wavelength. In linear algebra, Lambda denotes an eigenvalue also used as line density of charge and permanence.

#### Mu (μ)

Mu is used as a prefix for micro multipliers in terms of measurement, also used to indicate amplification factor, magnetic permeability, and mobility.

#### Nu (ν)

Nu has been used for denoting frequency. Poisson's ratio is also identified with this letter depicting the change in length and width of material when stretched.

#### Xi (ξ)

It has been used to denote the output coefficient and to represent coordinates.

#### Omicron (ο)

In the constellation group, the fifteenth start is represented using this symbol, which has more of an astronomical kind of use.

#### Pi (π)

Pi has universally used to represent the number pi (3.14). It has been used in geometry as the ratio of a circle's circumference and diameter. Irrespective of the rim and diameter of a process, the balance will always come out to be pi.

#### Rho (ρ)

It has been used to denote density, reflection coefficient, reflection factor, resistivity, and surface density of charge.

#### Sigma (σ)

Represents summation, surface charge density, complex propagation constant, electric conductivity, coefficient, and deviation

#### Tau (τ)

It has been used to depict a specific type of stress known as shear stress and propagation constant. Time constant, volume resistivity, density, and transmission factor are among the other uses.

#### Upsilon (Y)

They are commonly used in astrophysics to represent mass to light ratio.

#### Phi (φ)

It is typically used to represent the diameter of circular objects. Angels, coefficients of performance, phase angle, phase displacement, and radiant flux are other uses.

#### Chi (χ)

Structural analysis is one well-known use of the Chi symbol to denote buckling loads' reduction factor.

#### Psi (ψ)

Used to denote Dielectric flux, phase difference, coordinates, angles

#### Omega (ω)

Omega is the last alphabet of the Greek language and has been used for frequency in structural dynamics. The uppercase of omega represents Ohm in electrical engineering.